Features Problems and Policies Of Agriculture 1950-1990

Features Problems and Policies Of Agriculture 1950-1990


Features Problems and Policies Of Agriculture 1950-1990

Importance Of Agriculture

● 72% of working population in agriculture predominance

1. Contribution to GDP

2. Supply of food grains

3. Source of employment

4. Supply of raw material

5. Source of demand for the industrial goods

6. Wealth of nation


Features of Indian agriculture

1. Low productivity

2. Dependence on rainfall

3. Subsistence farming

4. Lack of modern inputs

5. Small holding

6. Backward Technology


Problems of Indian agriculture

1. Lack of irrigation facility

2. Small scatter holding

3. Deficiency of finance

4. Conventional Outlook

5. Lack of organised Marketing System


Problems of Indian Agriculture


A. General Problems

1. Pressure of population on land

Also Read  Infrastructure - Indian Economy

2. Land degradation

3. Subsistence farming

4. Social environment

5. Crop losses-by pest, insect, flood draught etc.


B. Institutional Problems.

1. Small and scattered holdings.

2. Poor implementation of land reforms.

3. Lack of credit and marketing facilities.


C. Technical Problems.

1. Lack of irrigation facilities.

2. Wrong cropping pattern.

3. Outdated technique of production.




1. Land Reforms/institutional reforms

    a. Abolition of intermediaters

    b. Ceiling on land holding

It refers to fixing the maximum amount of land that one can hold

     c. Consolidation of holding

     d. Cooperative farming

2. Technical reforms (Green Revolution)

     a. Use of high yielding variety seeds (HYVs)

     b. Use of chemical fertilizers

     c. Use of pesticides and insecticides

     d. Scientific crop rotation

     e. Modernized means of cultivation

3. General reforms

     a. Expansion of irrigation facilities

     b. Institutional credit (NABARD)

     c. Regulated market and Cooperating marketing

     d. Price support policy (MSP)

Also Read  Economic Reforms 1991 Or New Economic Policy

● in 1982 National Bank of Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) was established to institutional credit facility to the farmers.


Reforms in Indian Agriculture


A. Institutional Reforms also called Land reforms.

(i) Abolition of intermediaries.

(ii) Regulation of rent.

(iii) Consolidation of holdings.

(iv) Ceiling on land holdings.

(v) Cooperative Farming


B. General reforms.

(i) Expansion of irrigation facilities.

(ii) Provision of credit

(iii) Regulated markets and co-operative marketing societies.

(iv) Support price policy.


C. Technical Reforms or Green Revolution

(i) Use of HYV seeds

(ii) Use of chemical fertilisers.

(iii) Use of insecticides and pesticides for crop protection

(iv) Scientific rotation of crops

(v) Modernised means of cultivation.



It refers to sudden and spectacular increase in agriculture productivity due to the use of high yielding variety seeds in 1965.

Achievements of Green Revolution

1. Increase in production

2. Increase in national income

Also Read  Strategy Of Industrial Growth 1947-1990

3. Shift from subsistence farming to Commercial farming

4. Change in farmers Outlook

5. Self sufficiency in food grain

limitations of Green Revolution / failure

1. Limited crops (wheat and rice)

2. Limited areas (Punjab Haryana Maharashtra Tamil Nadu etc)

3. Soil degradation

4. Economic divide (poor and rich)     


Conclusion: In this article we learn that ‘Features Problems and Policies Of Agriculture’. This Article Is Very Important For All students who adopt ‘Indian Economy’ Subject.


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